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Hi-Fructose magazine showcases an eclectic mix of underground artists, pop surrealists, emerging and rediscovered countercultures, and awe-inspiring. The long wait is over. The first issue of Hi Fructose, then new art & culture magazine by Attaboy and Annie Owens, has finally arrived! It features. Read Hi-Fructose: Special Fashion PDF. Reading books is a science, because all the latest information is only in can always read books. Here is.
The consumption of sugar in the United States, whether it is artificial or natural, has increased by over pounds a year per person since Obesity in America has risen since HFCS was introduced into the market, but no conclusive evidence has shown what, if any significant role it plays in this epidemic. Conservative estimates put a daily consumption amount of HFCS at kcal for ages greater than or equal to two years old Bray et al, , p. George Bray and his partners point out many other aspects of the consumption of HFCS and the rise in obesity.
Insulin and leptin act as key afferent signals in the regulation of food intake and body weight, this suggests that dietary fructose may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain Bray et al, , p. The only problem Dr. Bray and other scientists face is that not all soft drinks contain HFCS and sucrose remains the leading added sugar consumed in the American diet and the leading source of fructose Buzby, , usda. However, HFCS use is difficult to measure in our society, and because of this, most scientific findings are speculative at best.
Rates of obesity have plateaued during the same time frame in most population groups Flegal, , p. So perhaps Dr. Bray was on to something when he said the consumption of HFCS and the obesity rise mirror one another. However, other countries consume nine times more sucrose than HFCS and obesity is a problem there as well Rippe, , p.
There have been studies that have come back inconclusive as to whether which sweetener causes obesity more than the other. The future is unclear for this product.
Will it, however, be able to shake the accusations of its ongoing battle with obesity?
After analyzing these findings, I conclude that it is unclear that HFCS was a major factor in the rise in obesity. More studies are needed attempting to show definitive evidence of the negative side effects of HFCS consumption, or the evidence showing that there is no difference between the outcomes in the overconsumption of HFCS and sucrose whether they are considered negative or not.
High- fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: Increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 97, 1, Bray, G.
Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 43, Bray, George. Advances in Nutrition, 5, Buzby J, Wells HF. Loss-adjusted food availability data: Retrieved from: Flegal, K. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, — The Journal of the American Medical Association. Havel, P. Dietary Fructose: Rippe, J.
What do we really know? Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. It travels in a liquid gel-type form syrup that keeps it stable in acidic foods such as beverages.
A simple dilution is needed as it travels from the delivery vehicles into the mixing tanks, where it is quickly ready to be used. These factors made many in the food industry deem HFCS a revolutionary food.
In its early stages of implementation into processed foods in the late s, it was shown to prevent drying, retain moisture, blend well with other sweeteners, acids and other flavorings, control crystallization, and maintain an overall stable texture with the processed food.
American Journal Clinical Nutrition 58 For the manufacturer, it means an easier product to make, with a longer shelf life, as opposed to using sucrose.
The sugars in HFCS are also quickly and easily fermented resulting in sweeter bread that is more economical to make than with table sugar. HFCS is able to maintain its taste despite temperature fluctuations during the production and transportation of liquids, such as sodas and juices. The beverage industry quickly utilized this ability. The power of corn for other uses was being realized, such as ethanol.
After lobbying to congress, newly implemented government corn subsidies along with high tariffs and taxes on imported cane sugar made it to where HFCS was used in almost every widely manufactured soda in the US.
That proves how reliant the food industry is with HFCS. America uses HFCS in more foods than any other developed nation. Accessed October 27, A Case Study in Corporate Welfare. We are now nearing the turn of the century and HFCS has a huge stronghold in the processed foods market.
Sugar consumption is rising rapidly and so is the obesity rate in the US. Sugar is Sugar.
When looking at the chemical make up of each sugar in question, it is easily deduced that sucrose and HFCS are not the same. In review, both sucrose and HFCS are disaccharides consisting of fructose and glucose. This is true on paper, but can our body tell the difference between the two and is HFCS a major reason why Americans are becoming more obese?
Conflicting studies have been published asking these questions. Before we get into the studies, we will break down how the body reacts to sugar. Simply put, the body reads glucose and fructose differently. Every cell in the body can use glucose for energy and because of this, its metabolic pathway is different.
The intestine does have enzymes that remove the individual monosaccharides. Its process is slower, but is facilitated by its co-ingested glucose. HFCS consists of glucose and fructose in an uneven ratio, making it unbound, ready for absorption and utilization. Whereas, fructose molecules in sucrose, cane or beet sugar, has a corresponding glucose molecule and must go through an extra metabolic step enzymatic digestion before it can be utilized.
In HFCS, with no chemical bond between fructose and glucose, they are more rapidly absorbed into the blood stream. Without the slower absorption of fructose that is helped by the partnered glucose, absorption is much quicker, which may result in lower circulating insulin and leptin levels, along with higher ghrelin levels.
Ghrelin is an enzyme produced by the stomach lining cells that stimulates appetite. The higher amounts of ghrelin and the unbound fructose also interfering with insulin satiation, the feeling of hunger occurs more frequently.
Scientific discoveries such as this have spawned many studies that have tried to slow down, and even halt the consumption of HFCS. Bray et al, in , was a study that took on a life of its own when the authors accused HFCS of causing obesity in America.
The public reacted in normal fashion, with outrage, but other studies would fire back.